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初二英语(下) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. on time2. out of3. all by oneself14. lots of5. no longer6. get back7. sooner or later8. run away9. eat up10. take care2 of11. turn off3 12. turn on13. after a while4 14. make faces 15. teach oneself 16. fall off17. play the piano18. knock5 at19. to one's surprise 20. look up21. enjoy oneself 22. help yourself23. tell a story / stories24. leave....behind ……25. come along6 26. hold a sports meeting7 27. be neck and neck28. as8 ... as29. not so / as ... as30. do one's best31. take part9 in32. a moment late33. Bad luck10!34. fall behind35. high jump36. long jump37. relay11 race38. well done!39. take off40. as usual41. a pair of42. at once43. hurry off44. come to oneself45. after a while46. knock on47. take care of48. at the moment49. set12 off50. here and there51. on watch52. look out53. take one’s placeII. 重要句型1. We’d better not do sth.2. leave one. oneself3. find one’s way to a place4. stand on one’s head5. make sb. Happy6. catch up with sb.7. pass on sth. to somebody8. spend time doing sth.9. go on doing sth.10. get on well with sb.11. be angry with sb.12. be fed up with sth.13. not…until…14. make room for sb.III. 交际用语1. We’re all by ourselves13.2. I fell14 a little afraid.3. Don’t be afraid.4. Help!5. Can’t you hear anything?6. I can’t hear anything / anybody15 there.7. Maybe it’s a tiger.8. Let’s get it back before they eat the food.9. Did16 she learn all by herself17?10. Could18 she swim when she was19 …years old?11. She didn’t hurt herself.12. He couldn’t buy himself20 many nice things.13. Did he enjoy himself?14. Help yourselves21.15. Bad luck!16. Come on!17. Well done! Congratulations22 (to…)!18. It must be very interesting.19. I don’t think you’ll like it.20. It seems23 to be an interesting book.21. I’m sure (that)… I’m not sure if… I’m not sure what to…22. I hope24 so.23. What was he/she drawing25 when…?24. I’m sorry to trouble26 you.25. Would27 you please…?26. What were you doing at ten o’clock yesterday morning?27. You look tired today.28. You’d better go to bed early tonight, if you can.29. How kind!30. Let’s move the bag, or it may cause28 an accident29.31. It’s really nice of you.32. Don’t mention30 it.33. Don’t crowd31 around him.IV. 重要语法1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法;3. 并列句;4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;5. 冠词的用法;6. 动词的过去进行时;【名师讲解】1. bring/takeBring表示“带来、拿来”,指从别处朝说话人所在或将在的地方“带来、拿来”。而take则表示“拿去、带走”,它表示的方向与bring相反,指从说话人所在地“拿走、带走”。如:Bring me the book, please. 把那本书给我拿来。Take some food to the old man. 给那位老人带去些食物。2. somebody/ anybody/nobody32 一般说来,somebody用于定句,anybody用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。例如: Somebody came33 to see you when you were out. 你出来时有人来见你。 Does anybody live on this island? 有人在这岛上住吗? I didn't see anybody there. 我在那儿谁也没看见。 Don't let anybody in. I'm too busy to see anybody. 别让任何人进来。我太忙,谁也不想见。 There is nobody in the room. 房间里没人。 Nobody told me that you were ill, so I didn't know about it . 谁也没告诉我你病了。所以我不知道。 3. listen, listen to, hear这三个词意思都是“听”,但是它们的用法不完全相同。它们的区别在于:(1)listen 只用于不及物动词,后面接人或人物做宾语,着重于“倾听”,指的是有意识的动作,至于是否听到,并非强调的重点。如:Listen! Someone34 is singing in the classroom. 听!有人在教室唱歌。(2)listen to 为listen的及物形式,后面一定要接人或物做宾语,这里的to是介词。如:Do you like listening to light music?你喜欢听轻音乐吗?(3)hear 可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,意思是“听到、听见”,指用耳朵听到了某个声音,表示无意识的动作,着重于听的能力和结果。如:We hear with our ears.我们用耳朵听。She listens but hears nothing.她听了听,但是什么也没有听见。4. many/ much/ a few35/ a little/ few/ little(1)many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词;都表示许多。例如: He has many books.他有许多书。 He drank much milk.他喝了许多牛奶。(2)a few和a little都表示"有一点儿",侧重于肯定,相当于"some",但a few修饰可数名词,a little修饰不可数名词,例如:He has a few friends in London.他在伦敦有一些朋友。Would you like some coffee? Yes, just a little.喝点咖啡好吗?好的,只要一点。(3)few和little表示"几乎没有",侧重否定。few后接可数名词,little后接不可数名词。例如:He is a strange36 man. He has few words.他是个怪人,他几乎不说什么话。Hurry up, there is little time left.赶快,没什么时间了。 5. either37/ neither38/ both either可作形容词,一般指"两者中的任何一个"。有时也可表示"两个都……"的意思,后跟名词的单数形式;neither: 指两者中没有一个,全否定;both: 指两者都,肯定。句中可作主语、宾语和定语,both后面应跟名词的复数形式。如: Neither of the films is good.两部电影都不好。(没有一部是好的) Either of the films is good. 两部电影都不错。(谓语动词用单数) Both the teachers often answer the questions.这两个老师都常常解答问题。6. take part in/jointake part in参加某种活动; join参加,加入某一政党或组织。例如:Can you take part in my party.你能来参加我的派对吗?We often take part in many school activities39.我们经常参加学校里的一些活动。He joined the party in 1963. 他1963年入的党。My little brother joined the army40 last year. 我小弟去年参的军。7. quite/ rather41/ very(1)quite 表示程度“很,十分,完全地”,“相当”。如:She is quite right.她对极了。That's not quite what I want . 那并不完全是我所要的。(2)rather 表示程度上的“相当”,比预想地程度要大,通常用在不喜欢的情况下。如:It's rather cold today.今天的天气相当冷。(3)very表示程度“很,甚,极其,非常”,用于修饰形容词或副词,既可用在喜欢的情况下,也可用于不喜欢的情况下。应注意“a very +形容词+可数名词的单数”结构中,"a"应置于"very"之前,该结构相当“quite a/an +形容词+名词”的结构。如:Two months is quite a long time. / a very long time. 两个月是一段很长的时间。It's a very nice day / quite a nice day. 今天天气很好。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 不定代词/副词的运用; 2. 反身代词的用法;3. 并列句;4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;5. 冠词的用法;6. 动词的过去进行时;7. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;8. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年江西省中考试题) ---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer. ---Oh, I am sorry I ___________ dinner at my friend’s home. A. have B. had C. was having D. have had【解析】答案:C。该提考查的是动词的时态。表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作应用过去进行时。2. (2004年北京市中考试题) ---Which is _________, the sun, the moon or the earth42? ---Of course43 the moon is. A. small B. smaller C. smallest D. the smallest【解析】答案:D。该提考查的是形容词的比较等级。三者进行比较,其中最小的应用最高级,而形容词最高级之前必须加顶冠词the。3. (2004年河北省中考试题) Bob never does his homework _________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes44. A. so careful as B. as carefully45 as C. carefully as D. as careful as【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。空白处所缺的词是修饰动词短语does his homework的,应该用副词。另外,表示“某人做事不如某人细心”应用“not as carefully as”这样的结构。 4. (2004年吉林省中考试题) ---I like riding fast. It’s very exciting. ---Oh! You mustn’t do it like that, ________ it may have an accident. A. and B. or C. so D. but 【解析】答案:B。该提考查的是连接并列句的并列连词的选择。And通常连接两个意思一致的并列句,so连接两个有因果关系的并列句,but连接两个有转折关系的并列句,or相当于if not意思是“否则”。
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