Source: [db:来源]  [db:作者]  2022-07-22  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  
初三年级(上) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. at the moment 2. used1 to 3. for a while2 4. walk away with sth. 5. leave for some place 6. sooner or later3 7. pay5 for 8. come up with an idea 9. think of 10. have a try 11. all over the world 12. be famous6 for 13. large numbers of 14. all the year round 15. no matter what 16. give up17. for example 18. by the way19. on business7 20. so far21. come true8 22. set9 off23. slow down 24. go on doing 25. wait for26. be proud11 of27. be afraid of 28. speak highly12 of29. a year and a half30. half a year 31. pick13 up 32. as14 soon as 33. keep… clean34. take care15 of 35. cut down 36. make a contribution16 to37. base17 on 38. make sure 39. take away 40. begin with41. right now42. as soon as possible43. leave a message 44. all kinds of things 45. walk around 46. fall asleep18 47. wake19 up 48. go on a trip 49. have a good time 50. take photos 51. come out 52. come on 53. have a family meeting2054. talk about55. go for a holiday56 go scuba21 diving2257. write down 58. by oneself23 59. walk along24 60. get a chance25 to do sth 61. have a wonderful time62. book a room63. have an accident27 64. be interested28 in65. use sth. to do sth.66. make a TV show 67. be amazed29 at68. take part30 in 69. feed on70. get out ofII. 重要句型1. Why don’t you do sth.? 2. make sb. Happy3. borrow31 sth. from sb. 4. forget to do sth.5. pay fro sth. 6. return32 sth. To sb.7. learn sth. from sb. 8. be famous for sth.9. No matter what… 10. be with sb.11. go on doing sth. 12. speak highly of sb.13. keep doing sth. 14. allow33 sb. To do sth.15. encourage34 sb. to do sth. 16. It is said35 that… III. 交际用语1. --- Excuse me, have you got36 …?--- Yes, I have. (Sorry, I haven’t.)2. --- Why don’t you …?--- Thanks, I will.3. --- Thanks a lot. (Thank you very much.)--- You are welcome.4. --- Have you ever37 done…?--- Yes, I have, once. (No, never.)5. --- I’ve just done…--- Really?6. ---What’s …like ?7. --- How long have you been…?--- Since38…8. --- Have you ever been to…?--- I’ve never been there. (None of us has./ Only …has. ) 9. --- Would39 you like to have a try?--- I don’t think I can…10. --- What have you done since…?11. --- How long have you been at this …?--- For…12. --- How long has she/ he worked there…?--- She’s / He’s worked there for… / all her / his life40.13. --- I’m sorry he isn’t here right now.14. --- May I help you?15. --- That’s very kind of you.16. ---Could41 we go scuba diving?17. --- Could you tell us how long we’re going42 to be away?18. --- Let’s try to find some information43 about it, OK?19. --- Could you please tell me how to search44 the Internet45?20. --- Go straight46 along here.21. ---Please go to Gate 12.22. --- Please come this way.23. --- Could you tell me what you think about Hainan Island?24. --- That sounds really cool!IV. 重要语法1. 宾语从句 2. 现在完成时3. 一般过去时与现在完成时的用法比较:【名师讲解】1. Maybe/ may be (1) maybe是副词,意思是“大概,也许”,常用作状语。 Maybe you put it in your bag.也许你把它放在包里了。“Will he come tomorrow?”“Maybe not.” “他明天来吗?”“也许不”。(2) may be相当于是情态动词may与be动词搭配一起作谓语,意思是“也许是…,可能是…”。 It may be 9:00 when they arrive.他们可能于九点到达。The man may be a lawyer47. 那人也许是律师。2. borrow/ lend/ keep/ use (1) borrow表示的是从别人那里借来东西,即我们通常所说的“借进来”。We often borrow books from our school library.我们经常从学校图书馆借书。I borrowed48 this dictionary49 from my teacher. 我从老师那儿借来了这本字典。borrow是一个瞬间完成的动作,因此不能与时间段连用。You can borrow my recorder for three days. ( 错误 )I have borrowed this book for only one week. ( 错误 ) (2) lend表示的是把自己的东西借给别人,即我们通常所说的“借出去”。Thank you for lending50 me your bike.谢谢你把自行车借给我。He often lends51 money to his brother.他经常借钱给他弟弟。 lend与borrow一样,也是一个瞬间完成的 动作,不能与一段时间连用。 (3) keep的意思也是“借”,但一般是指借来后的保存或使用阶段,是一段持续的时间,因此可以与时间段连用。You can keep my recorder for three days.我的录音机你可以借用三天。I have kept this book for only one week.这本书我才刚借了一星期。(4) use也可以当“借用”讲,但它的本意是“用,使用”。May I use your ruler? 我能借你的尺子用一下吗?He had52 to use this public53 telephone.他不得不使用这部公用电话。3. leave/ leave for(1) leave意思是“离开,留下”。 We left Shanghai two years ago.我们两年前离开了上海。 He left his cell54 phone in the taxi last week.他上周把手机落在出租车里了。(2) leave for意思是“前往”,表示要去的目的地。We will leave for Tibet55 next month.我们将于下月去西藏。The train is leaving for Moscow56.这趟火车即将开往莫斯科。4. since/ for (1) since用于完成时态,既能用作介词,也能用作连词,后常接时间点,意思是“自从”。 He has been a worker since he came57 into this city.自从他来到这个城市,他就是工人了。 I have never seen58 him since we last met in Shanghai .自从我们上次在上海见过之后,我再也没见过他。since作连词,还有“既然”的意思。 Since you are interested in it, just do it. 既然你对它感兴趣,那就做吧。 You can have fun now since you’ve finished59 your work.既然你已经做完了功课,就开心玩会儿吧。 (2) for用于完成时,用作介词,后常接一段时间,意思是“经过…”。 I have learned60 English for five years.我已经学了五年英语了。They have waited for you for 30 minutes.他们已经等了你三十分钟了。for也可以用作连词,但意思是“因为”。 They missed the flight61 for they were late.他们由于完到了而误了航班。He fell62 ill for many reasons63.他由于多种原因病倒了。5. neither64/ either65/ both (1) neither作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为“两者都不”,作主语时谓语动词用单数.Neither of the boys is from England.这两个男孩都不是来自英国。I know neither of them. 他们两个我都不认识。 neither用作形容词,也修饰单数名词,意思与作代词时相同;用作连词时,一般与nor搭配,表示 “既不…也不”。作主语时,谓语动词也遵循就近原则。 She neither ate4 nor66 drank yesterday. 她昨天既不吃也不喝。Neither he nor we play football on Sundays. 他和我们星期天都不踢球。(2) either作代词时,是指两者中的任意一方,(两者之)每一个,故作主语时谓语动词用单数. Either of the books is new.这两本书任何一本都是新的.She doesn’t like either of the films.这两部电影她都不喜欢.either作形容词, 用来修饰单数名词,意思与作介词时相同. Either school is near my home. (这两所学校中的)任何一所学校都离我家很近.Either question is difficult.两个问题(中的任何一个)都难.either作连词时,一般与or搭配,表示两者选其一,意思是“不是…就是”。作主语时,谓语动词遵循就近原则。 Either he or I am right.不是他就是我是对的。Either my sister or my parents are coming to see me.不是我姐姐就是我父母要来 看我。(3) both作代词时,指的是所涉及到的“两者都”, 故作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 I like both of the stories.这两个故事我都喜欢。Both of my parents are teachers.我父母两人都是老师。both作形容词时,用来修饰两者,意思与作代词时相同.Both his arms are hurt.他的两只胳膊都受伤了。Both these students are good at English. 这两个学生都擅长英语。both用作连词时,多与and搭配,表示“既…又, 不仅…而且”, 作主语时,谓语动词仍用复数形式。 Both piano and violin are my bobbies.钢琴和小提琴都是我的爱好。They study both history and physics67. 他们既学历史,又学物理。 6. find/look for/ find out (1) find强调找的结果,意思是“找到”。此外还有“发现,发觉”的意思,后可接宾语从句。 Jim couldn’t find his hat.吉姆找不着帽子了。Have you found68 your lost keys? 你找到丢失的钥匙了吗?He found the lights were on along the street.他发现沿街的灯都亮了(2) look for的意思为“寻找”,指的是找的动作而非结果。另外,还有“盼望,期待”的意思。 She is looking for her son.她正在找她的儿子。We’ve been looking for the car since early this morning.我们从今天一大早就开始找这辆车了。I look for the coming holiday.我期待着即将来临的假期。(3) find out含有经过观察、研究或探索而得知的意思,后常接较抽象的事物,意思是“找出,发现,查明(真相)”等。 I can find out who took69 my money away.我能查出谁拿了我的钱。Could you find out when the plane arrives? 你能设法知道飞机何时到吗? 7. forget to do/ forget doing (1) forget to do是指忘记去做某件事了,即该事还没有做。 Please don’t forget to call this afternoon.今天下午不要忘了给我打电话。I forgot70 to take some small change with me.我身上忘了带零钱了。(2) forget doing是指忘记某件已经做过的事情,即该事已经做了,但被忘记了。 He forgot telling me his address.他忘了告诉过我地址了。They forgot having been here before.他们忘了以前曾来过这儿。8. stop doing/ stop to do (1) stop doing是指停止做某事,即doing这个动作不再继续。They stopped debating71.他们停止了辩论。(不辩论了) He had to stop driving as the traffic72 lights changed in to red. 由于交通灯变成了红色,他不得不停车。 (2) stop to do是指停下来开始做另一件事,即停止原先的事,开始做do这个动作。 She stopped to have a rest.她停下来休息会儿。(开始休息)They stopped to talk.他们停下来开始交谈。9. except73/ besides74 (1) except是指不包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“撇开…不谈”,表示两部分的不同。 Everyone is excited75 except me.除我以外的每个人都很激动。(他们激动,而我却不激动)All the visitors76 are Japanese77 except him.除他以外的所有游客都是日本人。(其他人是日本人,可他不是)(2)besides是包括后面所提人或物在内的“除了”,可以理解为“除之外…还、除之外…又”,表示两部分的相似性。 Twenty-five students went to the cinema besides him.除他以外,还有25个学生去看了电影。(他和另外25人都去了)We like biology78 besides English.除了英语外,我们还喜欢生物。(生物和英语都喜欢)besides还可用作副词,意思是“此外;而且”,常用于句首或句尾。He is a great thinker79, and besides, he is a politician80.他是一名伟大的思想家,除此以外,他还是一位政治家。 They encouraged81 me, and they supported82 me with money, besides. 他们不仅鼓励我,而且与我以金钱上的支持。 10. keep doing/ keep on doing (1) keep doing指的是连续地、坚持不断地做某事,中间不间断。 It kept blowing for a whole83 day.刮了一整天风了。The temperature84 keeps dropping.温度持续下降。(2) keep on doing是指反复坚持做某事,但动作之间略有间隔。They have kept on writing85 to each other for many years.他们已经互相通信多年了。After drinking some water, he kept on talking.喝了一些水后,他坚持讲话。11. seem/ look  seem一般着重于以客观迹象为依据,意思是“似乎、好象、看起来…”。 The baby seems86 to be happy.婴儿看上去似乎很高兴。He seemed87 to be sorry for that.他似乎为那件事感到抱歉。seem能与to do结构连用,而look不能。 It seems to rain. 似乎要下雨了。They seemed to have finished their work.他们似乎已经完成了工作。在it作形式主语的句型中只能用seem。 It seems that he is quite busy now.他现在看起来很忙。It seems to us that there is nothing serious88.在我看来没什么大不了的。 (2) look用作“看起来;好像”时,常从物体的外观或样貌上来判断,是以视觉所接受的印象为依据的。 The room looks clean.这间房看起来很干净。The girl looks like her mother.那女孩看起来向她的妈妈。12. such89/ so (1)such常用作形容词,用来修饰名词。 Don’t be such a fool90.别这么傻。 He is such a clever boy.他是如此聪明的一个男孩。 so是副词,用来修饰形容词或副词。 He is so kind! 他真好心!Why did91 you come so late? 你为何回来得如此晚?当名词前有many, much, few92, little等表示多、少时,应该用so。 He has so many friends.他有如此多的朋友。 Only so little time is left! 才剩这么一点儿时间!13. either/ too/ also (1)either用作“也”时是副词,常用于否定句句尾。She is not a Japanese, I’m not, either.她不是日本人,我也不是。My sister doesn’t like this song, either.我妹妹也不喜欢这首歌。(2)too常用于肯定句或疑问句尾,表示“也”。He likes China, too.他也喜欢中国。Are you in Grade 3, too? 你也在三年级吗?(3)also也常用于肯定句或疑问句,但一般位于句中。We are also students.我们也是学生。He also went there on foot.他也是走着去的。Did you also want to have a look? 你也想看看吗? 14. if/ whether93 在下列情况下只能用whether而非if: (1)与or not连用时,只能用whether.We want to know whether you are ill or not. 我们想知道你是否生病了。Please tell me whether or not you have finished your work.请告诉我们你是否完成了工作。(2)后接动词不定式时,只能用whether.Adam didn’t know whether to go or stay.亚当不知道是走还是留。He hasn’t decided94 whether to have dinner with me.他还没决定是否和我共进晚 餐。(3)所引导的宾语从句放在主句之前时,只能用whether.Whether it will rain or snow, we don’t mind95. 我们不在乎将要刮风还是下雨。Whether I won26 or lost, she didn’t want to know.我是赢是输她不想知道。(4)引导主语从句或表语从句时,一般用whether.The most important96 was97 whether they had gone.最重要的是他们是不是已经 走了。Whether he will go with me is a secret98.他是否会和我一起去还是个秘密。if能引导条件状语从句,表示“如果,假如”,而whether没有此用法。We’ll have a football match if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.如果明天不下雨,我们 要进行足球赛。I’ll tell him if I sees him.我看见他就告诉他。If you’re in danger99, please call 110.如果你遇到危险,请拨打110。15. cost100/ spend/ pay/ take (1) cost一般用某物来做主语,表示“(某物)值…、花费…”,既能指花费时间也能指金钱。The new bike costs101 me 300 yuan.这辆新自行车花了我三百元。It will cost you a whole to read through this book.通读这本书将会花费你整整一周时间。cost 还可以用作名词,表示“成本、费用、价格、代价”等。What’s the cost of this TV set? 这台电视机的成本是多少钱?They succeeded102 at the cost of hard work.他们辛苦地工作换来的成功。(2) spend一般用某人来作主语,表示“(某人)花费…,付出…”,也能指时间或金钱,指时间时常与 in搭配,指金钱时常与on或for搭配。 We spent two days in repairing103 this machine104.我们花了两天时间修理这台机器。 Mr. Lee spends $20 on books every month.李先生每月花二十美元在书上。(3) pay用作动词时,一般也以某人作主语,但一般指花钱、付款等,很少用来指花费时间。常与for搭配使用。They paid105 70 yuan for the tickets.他们花了七十元买票。He was too poor to pay for his schooling106.他穷得交不起学费。pay还可以用作名词,意思为“薪水、工资”等。It’s hard for me to live with such low10 pay.我很难靠这么低的薪水生活下去。(4)take也指“花费(时间、金钱)”,但通常用某事、某物做主语,或用形式主语it.How long will the meeting take? 会议要开多久?It took me several107 hours to get there. 我花了几个小时才到那儿。16. bad/ badly108 这两个词的意思含有“坏、糟、严重”等意思,且它们有共同的比较级worse和最高级worst 。 (1) bad是一个形容词,意思是“坏的,糟糕的,差的,严重的”。 I don’t think he is a bad person109.我并不认为他是一个坏人。I had a bad headache.我的头疼得很厉害。(2)badly是一个副词,意思是“不好地,差”,也可以表示程度,意为“严重地,非常,极度”。 We need help badly.我们急需帮助。His arm was badly hurt.他的胳膊严重受伤了。17. interested/ interesting (1) interested是指“对…产生兴趣的,对…感兴趣的”,一般用人做主语,后常用介词in. He was interested in biology before.他以前对生物感兴趣。 I’m not interested in art.我对艺术不感兴趣。(2)interesting的意思是“有趣的”,指能够给人带来兴趣的某人或某事物。 He is an interesting old man.他是个有趣的老头。The interesting story attracted110 me. 这个有趣的故事吸引了我。18. dead111/ die/ death112/ dying113 (1) dead是形容词,意思为“死了的、无生命的”,表示状态,可以与一段时间连用。 The tree has been dead for ten years.这棵树死了有十年了。The rabbits are all dead. 这些兔子都是死的。(2) die是动词,意思为“死、死亡”,是一个瞬间动词,不能与一段时间连用。 My grandpa died114 two years ago.我爷爷两年前去世了。The old man died of cancer115.老人死于癌症。death是名词,意思为“死亡、去世”等。 The memorial116 hall was built117 one year after his death.他死后一年,纪念馆建成了。 His death is a great loss118 to us.他的死是我们的巨大损失。 (4) dying 是die的现在分词,用作形容词,意思是“垂死的、即将死去的”。 The doctors have saved119 the dying man.医生们救活了那个垂死的人。The poor dog had no food, it was dying.可怜的狗没有食物,快要饿死了。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 宾语从句的时态和语序;2. 一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别;3. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;4. 本单元学习的日常交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年北京市海淀区中考试题)---Do you know ________________?---Only ten months old.A. when does Tiger Woods start golfing120B. when did Tiger Woods start golfingC. when Tiger Woods starts golfingD. when Tiger Woods started golfing【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从句的时态和语序。这个宾语从句的时态应用一般过去时,应为这里说的是过去的事情。语序应用陈述句的语序,所以正确答案是: when Tiger Woods started golfing。2. (2004年北京市海淀区中考试题)I’m interested in animals, so I _____________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital.A. pay B. get C. take D. spend【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是pay, get, take和spend这四个动词的用法区别。只有动词spend可以用在sb. spends time doing sth. 这个句型里,所以正确答案影视spend。3. (2004年天津市中考试题) Could I ________ your telephone? I have something important to tell my parents. A. keep B. borrow C. use D. lend【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是keep, borrow, use和lend四个动词的用法区别。keep的真正含义是“保留”,borrow的含义是“借入”,lend的含义是“借出”,只有use的含义是“使用”。在这个句子里实际上是“使用”的意思,所以应选use。4. (2004年鄂州市中考试题) ---Hi, Ann. Where’s your brother? I need his help. ---He left home two weeks ago and ________away ever since. A. is B. was C. has been D. had been【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词时态的用法区别。一般现在时表示经常发生的动作或现在所处的状态;一般过去时表示过去的动作或过去所处的状态;过去完成时表示过去的动作或过去的时间以前发生的事情;现在完成时表示动作或状态从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在或刚刚结束。这里只能用现在完成时。
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