Source: [db:来源]  [db:作者]  2022-07-22  我要投稿   论坛   Favorite  
初三年级(中) 【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. give up 2. try out 3. most of 4. not…any more 5. at the age of 6. at that time 7. send message by telegraph1 8. graduate from9. turn down10. put up 11. at the top of12. get together 13. from house to house14. at the end of 15. on top of 16. as well 17. climb down18. in a single night19. even though 20. live on 21. once upon2 a time22. according3 to23. keep warm 24. on the other hand 25. on show26. on display27. in the future 28. look up29. Tree Planting Day 30. just right 31. as often as possible 32. wash away33. in this way 34. in a few years' time35. point to 36. thanks to37. more or less 38. so far39. shut down 40. send up 41. put off II. 重要句型1.set one's mind to do sth. 2. put … together 3. stop…from…4. keep…from…5. be filled with sth. 6. give birth to 7. be covered with 8. be made of 9. fill…with…10. match…with 11. be used5 for12. have nothing to do with13. come up with 14. no matter how…15. keep sb./sth.warm III. 交际用语1. ---I'm trying to … 2. --- I'll …3. --- Which of these would you like most to …?4. --- What do you want to … ?5. --- I want to…6. --- I hope to …7. --- I plan to…8. --- I'm going to…9. --- I'm so happy that …10. --- I'm glad ….11. --- me too.12. --- What's this called in English?13. --- What's it made of? 14. --- It's made of …15. --- What's it used for? 16. --- It's used for …17. --- English is widely used for business/ …18. --- It is one of the world's most important languages as it is so widely used.19. --- Where is / are … grown / produced / made ?20. --- The (ground ) must be just right…21. --- It's best to …22. --- The hole should not be too deep.23. --- The Great Green Wall is 7000 kilometres long, and between 400 and 1700 kilometres wide.24. --- The more, the better.25. --- More or less! 26. --- The (ground ) must be just right…27. --- The hole should not be too deep.28. 掌握以下常见标志:ENTRANCE EXIT6 PUSH PULL NO SMOKING7 NO PARKINGFRAGILE THIS SIDE UP NO PHOTOS DANGER BUSINESS HOURSPLAY STOP PAUSE8 ON OFFIV. 重要语法1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法;2. 动词不定式的功能和用法。【名师讲解】1. be able to/ can (1) 都能表示“能够,具备干某件事的能力”这个含义,此时可以互换。 Mr. Green is able to finish the work on time. = Mr. Green can finish the work on time.格林先生能够按时完成这项工作。 (2) be able to可以用于各种时态,而can 为情态动词,多用于现在时,其过去式为could。 We are sure he will be able to be an artist when he grows up.我们相信他长大后能够成为一名画家。Miss Lin has been able to pay the car by herself.林小姐已经能够自己负担那辆车了。Can除了表示“能够,有能力做某事”以外,还有如下用法,而be able to 则没有。表示请求,但语气没有could委婉Can I have a look at this picture? 我能看看这张图片吗?Can we leave school after 6:00 p.m. ?我们可以在下午6点之后再离开学校吗?表示可能性。That man can’t be our new teacher. 那人不可能是我们的新老师。The exam can’t be too difficult.考试不会太难。2. bring/ take/carry/fetch (1) bring一般是指拿来,即从别处往说话人这里拿,翻译成“带来”。 He brought us some good news.他给我们带来了一些好消息。Please don’t forget to bring your homework tomorrow.明天请别忘了把家庭作业带来。 (2) take一般是指从说话人这里往别处拿,翻译成“带走”。 Please take the umbrella with you. It’s going to rain.要下雨了,请把伞带上。She took the dictionary away.她把字典拿走了。 (3) carry不强调方向,表示“携带、背着、运送、搬扛”等意思。 They carried the boxes into the factory. 他们把箱子搬进了工厂。 A taxi carried them to the station. 出租车送他们到了车站 (4) fetch表示的是“去取来、去拿来、去叫来”等意思,包含去和来两趟。 The waiter fetched9 them some apples.侍者为他们取来了一些苹果。Mother fetched the doctor for her ill son.妈妈为生病的儿子请来了医生。3. whole/ all (1) whole强调一个完整如一,互不分割的整体。 The whole country is suffering10 the war4. 整个国家正遭遇战争。I just want to know the whole story.我仅仅只想知道完整的故事。 whole在句中的位置是放在所有格,冠词和指示代词的之后。 They will spend their whole holiday in Canada.他们将到加拿大渡过整个假期。(所有格后)She has finished writing the whole book. 她已经写完了整本书。(冠词后 whole用来修饰可数名词(名词用单数)。 He ate the whole cake. 他把整个蛋糕都吃了。(强调整整一个蛋糕)(2) all强调由一个个部分组成的“全部”。 Miss Green knew all the students in the class.格林小姐认识这个班上的所有人。(一个一个全认识) all在句中的位置是放在所有格,定冠词和指示代词的之前。 Jim finished all his homework in twenty minutes.吉姆在20分钟之内完成了所有的作业。(所有格前)Of all the boys here, he sings best.在这里所有的男孩之中,他唱的最好。(定冠词前)The boy can answer all these questions.那个男孩能够回答所有的这些问题。(指示代词前)all既能修饰可数名词(名词须用复数),又能修饰不可数名词。 All these five books are mine.这五本书都是我的。(修饰可数名词)She was worried about her son all the time.她总在为她的儿子担心。(修饰不可数名词)4. fill/ full (1) fill常作动词,与with连用,意思是“注满、装满”,也能表示“填空;补缺”的意思。 He filled the box with chalk.他把粉笔装满了盒子。The bucket11 is filled with water.水桶里装满了水。(2) full是形容词,翻译成“满的,装满的”,常与of连用。此外还能表示“完全的”和“吃饱的,过饱的”。All the rooms are full of people.所有的房间都满人了。The bus was full. He had to wait for the next one.这辆车人满了,他只有等下一辆。5. be made of/ be made from/ be made in/ be made into (1) be made of表示"由…制成", 一般指能够看出原材料,或发生的是物理变化。 This table cloth12 is made of paper.这张桌布是由纸做的。This salad is made of apples and strawberries.这种沙拉是由苹果和草莓做的。(2) be made from也表示"由…制成",但一般指看不出原材料,或发生的是化学变化。Bread is made from corn13.面包是小麦做的。The lifeboat is made from some special material.这个救生艇是由某种特殊材料制成的。(3) be made in指的是产地,意思为"于…制造"。The caps are made in Russia.这些帽子产于俄罗斯。 My mother likes to buy things which are made in China.我妈妈喜欢买中国产的东西。(4) be made into的意思为"被制成为…"。This piece of wood will be made into a small bench14. 这块木头将要被制成一个小凳。The paper has been made into clothes for the doll. 纸被做成了洋娃娃的衣服。6. none/ no one/ neither(1) none既能指人,又能指物,意思是"没有一个,无一",常用作代词,与of连用。None of us has heard of him before.我们没有一个人以前听说过他。I like none of the coats. 那些外套我一件都不喜欢。none用作主语时,谓语动词用单复数皆可。None of the answers is true.没有一个答案是正确的。None of the rooms are mine.没有一间房子是我的。(2) no one只能用来指人,且不能与of连用。No one is absent15.没有人缺席。I knew no one there.那里我一个人也不认识。no one用作主语时,谓语动词只能用单数。No one agrees with you. 没有人同意你的说法。(3) neither作代词是对两者都进行否定,意思为"两者都不",作主语时谓语动词用单数。Neither of the boys is from England. 这两个男孩都不是来自英国。I know neither of them.他们两个我都不认识。7. found/ find(1) find的意思是"找到、发现",其过去式和过去分词都是found. I can't find my glasses.我找不着我的眼镜了。 He found it boring to sit here alone.他发现独自坐在这里很没劲。(2) found是另外一个词,与find并没有关系,意思是"成立、建设",常用作及物动词。 The People's Republic16 of China was founded in 1949.中华人民共和国成立于1949年。 The school was founded by the local residents17.这所学校是由当地居民修建的。8. hear / hear of/ hear from(1)hear的意思是"听见;听说,得知",后面能接名词、代词或宾语从句。 We heard the news just a moment ago.我刚听说这个消息。 Can you hear me? 能听见我说话吗?(2) hear of的意思是"听说",一般指非直接的听见,而是听别人说的。后不能接宾语从句。 I have never heard of her.我从未听说过她。 They heard of the film long time ago.他们很久以前就听说过这部电影。(3) hear from的意思是"收到来信",与"听"无关。I often hear from him. 我经常收到他的来信。He hasn't heard from his mother for a long time.他很久没有收到妈妈的信了9. send/ send for(1) send意思是"送往,派遣",还有"发信,寄信"的意思。 The company sent him to study abroad.公司派他到国外学习去了。 Mr. Brown sent her children away.布郎夫人送走了孩子们。(2) send for意思是"召唤;派人去取;派人去拿",而非本人亲自去。 They have sent for a repairman.他们已经派人去请了一名修理工。 She sent for some flowers.她派了人去买花。10. get to/ arrive/ reach(1) arrive后不能直接接地点,是一个不及物动词。若表示到达一个相对大的地点,用arrive in ; 若表示相对小的地点,用arrive at . The delegation18 will arrive in China at 5:00 p.m.代表团将于下午5:00到达北京。 It was dark when they arrived at the railway station.当他们到达火车站的时候,天已经黑了。 When did she arrive here last time? 她上次是什么时候到这儿的?(副词前省略介词)(2) reach能直接接所到达的地点,是一个及物动词。They reached London on Friday.他们星期五到达了伦敦。The news only reached me yesterday.我于昨天才接到这个消息。reach还有"伸手去取,伸手触及,联络"等意思。Can you reach that apple on the tree? 你能够到树上的哪个苹果吗?He can always be reached on the phone.可随时打电话跟他联系。(3) get在表示"到达"时是不及物动词,应与to搭配使用。We often get to school on foot.我们经常步行到学校。They got to the top of the hill at noon.他们于中午到达了山顶。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 动词被动语态的结构和用法;2. 动词不定式的功能和用法;3. 本单元的词汇、短语和句型;4. 本单元学过的交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年北京市中考试题) Aunt Li often asks her son ________ too much meat. It’s bad for his health. A. don’t eat B. not to eat C. not eat D. to not eat【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词不定式的构成和用法。这个句子的基本句型是ask sb. not to do sth. 这里,not to eat 是不定式的否定式做宾语补足语。2. (2004年嘉兴市中考试题) China is becoming stronger and stronger, so Chinese ________ in more American schools now.was taught B. is taught C. teaches D. taught【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词的语态和时态。Chinese 是一种语言,只能被人教,因此要用被动语态。又因为说的现在的情况,动词要用一般现在时。所以选B。3. (2004年河北省中考试题) This painting ________ to a museum in New York in 1977.sells B. sold C. was sold D. is sold【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是动词的语态和时态。This painting只能被卖,所以用被动语态,又因为是1977年卖的,所以用一般过去时。4. (2004年扬州市中考试题) ---If you ________ a new idea, please call me as soon as possible. ---Sure, I will. A. keep up with B. catch up with C. feed up with D. come up with【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是短语动词用法。本单元学习的短语动词come up with a new idea意思是想出新主意,正符合题意。
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