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初二年级(中)【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. give a concert2. fall down3. go on4. at the end of5. go back6. in ahurry7. write down8. come out9. all the year round10. later2 on 11. at times 12. ring sb. up 13. Happy New Year! 14. have a party 15. hold on16. hear from17. be ready 18. at the moment19. take out 20.the same as521. turn over22. get-together23. put on24. take a seat625. wait for26. get lost27. just then28. first of all29. go wrong30. make a noise31. get on32. get off33. stand in line34. at the head of35. laugh at36. throw about37. in fact738. at midnight39. enjoy oneself40. have a headache41. have a cough42. fall asleep843. again and again 44. look over45. take exerciseII. 重要句型1. be good for sth.2. I think …3. I hope9…4. I love…5. I don’t like…6. I’m sure…7. forget to do sth.8. take a message for sb.9. give sb. the message 10. help yourself10 to sth.11. be famous11 for sth.12. on one’s way to…13. make one’s way to…14. quarrel12 with sb.15. agree13 with sb.16. stop sb. from doing sth.III. 交际用语1.What’s the weather like today?2.It’s cold, but quite suuny.3.How cold it is today!4.Yes, but it’ll be warmer later on.5.Shall14 we make a snowman?6.Ok. Come on!7.Happy New Year!8.May I speak to Ann, please??9.Hold on, please.10.Thanks a lot for inviting15 me to your party.11.Ok. But I’m afraid I may be a little late.12.Can I take a message for you? 13.That’s OK. It doesn’t matter. 14.I’m very sorry, but I can’t come.15.I’m sorry to hear that.16.Happy birthday!17.Would16 you like ...? Would you like to ...?18.Do you think ...? Yes, I think so. / No, I don't think so.19.Do you agree? Yes, I agree. / No, don't really agree. I really can't agree.20.There are a few17 / a lot of ... / on it.21.So do we.22.I'm happy you like it.23.Which is the way to ..., please? 24.Turn right/left at the ... crossing. 25.Go on until18 you reach19 ...26.How can I get to ...? Go down/up/along this road.27.What's the matter?28.It'll take you half an hour to ... 29.We'd better catch a bus. 30.It may be in ... Ah1, so it is31.You must be more careful!32.You mustn't cross the road now.33.If you want to cross a street, you must wait for the green light.34.Please stand in line.35.You must wait for your turn.36.If you don't go soon, you'll be late.37.I don't feel very well.38.My head hurts.39.You mustn't eat anything until you see the doctor.40.What's the trouble20?41.What's the matter with…?42.She didn't feel like eating anything.43.Nothing serious22.44.Have/get a pain23 in…45.No problem24.46.Take this medicine25 three times a day.IV. 重要语法1. 一般过去时;2. 反意疑问句的用法;3. 一般将来时;4. 感叹句;5. 简单句的五种基本句型;6. 情态动词can, may和must, have to的用法;7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句。【名师讲解】1. above/ over/ on 这三个介词都表示“在……之上”,但含义不同。on指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above指在某物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正上方;over指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试比较:There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。I raise26 my right hand above my head. 我把右手高举过头。There is a stone bridge27 over the river. 河面上有座石桥。2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth.forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某事”,实际上已经做过了。试比较:I forgot28 to tell him the news30.我忘记告诉他这条消息了。I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告诉他了,我却忘了。类似的词还有:remember, regret等。3. hope/wishhope和wish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下:(1)wish可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope只能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如:I wish I were 20 years younger32.我但愿自己能年轻二十岁。 I hope you’ll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好起来。I wish the weather wasn’t so cold. 但愿天气不这麽冷。I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。(2)wish可以接sb. to do sth. 的结构,而hope不可以。例如:Do you wish me to come back later? 你是否希望我再来?4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth. (1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例如:Be sure to lock34 the door when you leave.你离开时务必把门锁好。It’s a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。(2)be sure of/about sb.or sth. 可用来表示“某人对某事有把握”。例如:I’m sure of his success35.我相信他会成功。I think it was33 three years ago, but I’m not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把握。5. hear from/hear of hear意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用from来表示。例如:I’ve heard from Xiao Wu that we’ll start out military36 training37 tomorrow.我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei.听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。hear from还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信”(=receive a letter from sb.)。例如:I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month. 上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来信。hear of和和hear from含义不同。hear of 意思是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在疑问句和否定句里。例如:Who is he? I’ve never heard of him.他是谁?我从来没有听说过他。I never heard of such38 a thing! 这样的事我从来没有听说过。6. It’s a pleasure39./With pleasure.It’s a pleasure这句话常用作别人向你表示致谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如:---Thank you for helping40 me. 谢谢你地帮助。---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。---Thanks a lot. Bye.非常感谢。 再见。---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。类似的话还有 “Not at all.” “You are welcome.” “That’s all right.” With pleasure也用作客气的答语,主要用在别人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的场合。例如:---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please? 请你把报纸递给我好吗?---With pleasure. 当然可以。7. seem/look(1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲,但seem暗示凭借一些迹象作出的有根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实;look着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可跟(to be)+形容词和as if从句。如:He seems41 / looks (to be) very happy today. 他今天看起来很高兴。It looks (seems) as if it it is going42 to rain. 好像要下雨了。(2)但下列情况中只用seem不用look:1)后跟不定式to do时。如:He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知道答案。2)在It seems that ...结构中。如:It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。8. be ready to do/be ready for/ get ready to do/get ready for(1)be ready to do和be ready for…表示“已作好…的准备”,强调状态(2)get ready to do和get ready for…表示“为…做准备”,强调行为。如:I'm ready to do anything you want me to do. 我愿意/随时准备做一切做你要我做的事。I'm ready for any questions you may ask.我愿意/随时准备回答你可能问的问题。He's getting ready to leave for Tokyo.他正准备动身去东京。Let's get ready for the hard moment.我们为这一艰难时刻作好准备吧。(3)be ready to do 通常可理解“乐于做某事”,即思想上总是有做某事的准备。be not ready to do表示“不轻易做某事”。如:He's usually not ready to listen to others43.他通常不轻易听从别人。9. at table/at the tableat table在吃饭,at the table在桌子旁边。例如:The Greens are at table. 格林一家人在吃饭。Mr. Black is sitting at the table and reading44 a book.布莱克先生坐在桌旁读书。10. reach, arrive/get to 三者都有"到达"之意。reach是及物动词,后直接加名词,get和arrive是不及物动词,不能直接加名词,须借助于介词。get to后加名词地点,若跟副词地点时,to去掉;arrive at +小地方,arrive in+大地方。如: Lucy got29 to the zoo before 8 o'clock. 露西8点前到了动物园。 When did21 your parents arrive in Shanghai? 你父母何时到上海的? It was late when I got home. 我到家时天色已晚。11. sick/ill 二者都是形容词。当“生病的,患病“之意时,ill只作表语,不作定语;而sick既可作表语也可作定语。sick有"呕吐,恶心"的意思,只能作表语,而ill无此意。如: Li Lei was ill last week. (只作表语)李磊上周生病了。 He's a sick man. (作定语)他是病人。不能说成:He's an ill man. My grandfather was sick for a month last year. (作表语)我祖父去年病了一个 月。12. in time/on time in time是"及时"的意思,on time是"准时,按时"。如:I didn't get to the bus stop in time. 我没有及时赶上汽车。We'll finish our job on time. 我们要按时完成任务。13. may be/maybe It may be in your inside45 pocket46. = Maybe it is in your inside pocket. 也许在你里边的口袋里。第一句中may be是情态动词+be 动词构成的谓语部分,意思是"也许是","可能是";第二句中的maybe是副词,意思是"可能",常位于句首,不能位于句中,相当于另一副词perhaps。再如: Maybe you put it in that bag.也许你放在了那只包里。(不能说You maybe put itin that bag.)It may be a hat.那可能是顶帽子。(不能说It maybe a hat. 或It maybe is a hat.)14. noise/ voice47/ sound noise 指嘈杂声,噪音大的吵杂声。voice是指说话的声音,嗓音,嗓子。sound是指耳朵能够听到的声音、闹声等。它是表示声音之意的最普通的字。有时还用作科学上的声音。例如: Don't make so much noise! 别那么大声喧哗! I didn't recognize48 John's voice on the telephone. 在电话里我听不出约翰的声 音。He spoke49 in a low50 voice. 他低声说话。We heard a strange51 sound. 我们听到了一种奇怪的声音。Sound travels52 fast, but light travels faster. 声音传得快,但是光传得更快。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 一般过去时;2. 反意疑问句的用法;3. 一般将来时;4. 感叹句;5. 简单句的五种基本句型;6. 情态动词can, may和must, have to的用法;7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句;8. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;9. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型天空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年长沙市中考试题) ---Do you know if we will go to the cinema tomorrow? ---I think we’ll go if we ________ too much homework. A. will have B. had53 C. won’t have D. don’t have【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是条件状语从句的时态。在条件和时间状语从句里通常用一般现在是表示将来的动作。2. (2004年佛山市中考试题) You have been to Tibet54, _________? I was told that the snow-covered mountains were very beautiful.A. have you B. haven’t you C. don’t you【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是反意疑问句的构成。反意疑问句的前一部分是肯定句,后一部分就应该是否定的疑问部分,而且要和前一部分保持时态上的一致。3. (2004年扬州市中考试题) ---Jacky, look at that Japanese55 sumoist(相扑手). ---Wow, ______________! A. How a fat man B. What a fat man C. How fat man D. What fat man【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是感叹句的构成。这个感叹句省略了主谓部分,只保留了感叹部分。如果以What开头,就应该是What a fat man! 如果是How开头,就应该是How fat!4. (2004年福建省泉州市中考试题) ---Thanks for your help. ---__________________ A. It doesn’t matter B. Don’t thank me C. You’re welcome D. That’s right【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是日常交际用语。回答别人的道谢通常用“That’s all right.”或”You’re welcome.”【满分演练】一. 选择填空1. Don’t forget _________your book here tomorrow.A. to take B. to bring C. taking D. bringing2. Mrs Brown went to the cinema, ______she?A. didn’t B. doesn’t C. wasn’t D. isn’t3. It was half past four. Everything _______ready.A. is B. was C. are D. were4. ---Happy New Year!---____________.A. The same to you B. I’m glad to hear thatC. I’m very happy D. Thank you. It’s very kind of you.5. I got up late yesterday. There _________no time to have breakfast.A. has B. had C. was D. is6. Thank you for ______me to your party.A. invite B. inviting C. to invite D. invited567. ---I’m sorry I took57 your pen by mistake58 yesterday.---______________.A. All right B. That’s right C. Right D. That’s all right8. ---Thank you for showing me the way!---________________.A. The same to you B. It doesn’t matterC. It’s a pleasure D. That’s right9. ---Could59 I use your computer for a moment?---_____________.A. Sure B. Really C. Right D. It doesn’t matter10. ---I just lost my bike.---________________.A. I wish you to buy a new oneB. You’d better buy a new oneC. I’m sorry to hear thatD. It’s always nice to ride a new one二. 选择能代替句中划线部分的词语或短语1.What’s the matter with your mother?A.problem B. question C. message D. wrong2.---Thank you very much.---It’s a pleasure.A. I’m very glad. B. That’s right.C. It doesn’t matter D. Not at all3.What is he doing at the moment?A.now B. a moment ago C. late D later on4.Did you have a good time at the party?A.stay long B. sing and dance C. enjoy yourself D. eat enough 5.---May I speak to John, please?---Certainly.A.Sure. B. I think so. C. I’d love to D. That’s all right.6.---Could I speak to Jim, please?---Sorry,he isn’t in.A.is at home B. is not at work C. is out D. is free7.There is nothing but an old table in the room.A. many B. some C. any D. only8.What’s the weather like?A. When B. Where C. why D. How9.Please let me look at your photo.A.give me B. pass me C. bring me D. show me 10.Please ask him to ring me up when he comes back.A. see B. help C. call D. thank 三. 完形填空 When I __1__ in London last year, it had one of the thickest fogs(雾) in years. You could __2____ see your hand in __3___ of your face. When evening fell62, it became63 even61 __4___ . All traffic65 __5___ to a stop. I decided66 to walk. A few minutes __6___ , I couldn’t find my__7___ . Then I saw67 a young man and asked him to help me. He agreed68. As I was following69 him __8__ the streets, he told me, “I know this part4 of London quite well. And the thick fog60 ___9__ to me. You see, I’m __10___ .”1.A. is B. was C. am D. are2. A. easily B. hard C. hardly D. even3. A. front B. the front C. back D. the back4. A. bad B. worse C. good D. better5.A. began B. started C. went D came646.A. late B. later C. early D. earlier7.A. road B. way C. street D. home8.A. along B. in C. through D. by9.A. is not good B. does good C. is nothing D. has something10.A. strong B. week C. blind D. clever四. 阅读理解 (A) John was a very famous pianist70. When he was a small boy, he once played at a party at the home of a rich man. He was only eight years old. But he had played for several71 years. At the party he played a famous piece by Beethoven (贝多芬). He played wonderfully. The famous piece has in it several very long rests. In each of these rests he took his hands from the piano and waited. To him this was very exciting. But it seemed72 that the mother of the rich man thought73 differently. Finally74 during75 one of these rests she came over to him. She touched him on the head with a smile and said76, “My boy, why don’t you play us what you know well?” 根据短文内容判断正误:正确的答“A”,错误的答“B”。 1.John once played the piano at a party when he was only a little boy.2.John began to play the piano at the age of eight.3.In each of the rests John took his hands from the piano because he felt tired.4.The rich man’s mother did not think John played the piece well.5.I n fact the mother of the rich man knew the piece well. (B) One day, we had an English class. The teacher saw a boy reading a picture book and said, “Tom, what do you usually do after lunch?” Tom nervously(紧张地)got up from his seat, but he did not know what to answer. He thought for some time and then said, “Wait for supper.” The teacher was displeased77 and just at that moment, he saw another boy asleep. The teacher was getting a little angry now, but he was trying not to show it. Then he asked, “And you, Joke79?” As Joke was asleep, of course80, he could not hear what the teacher had said. His deskmate(同桌) woke81 him up. Joke stood82 up quickly and answered in a loud voice, “So do I”.1.This story happened____________.A. in the teacher’s office B. after lunchC. in class D. a home2.Tom’s answer made83 the teacher __________.A. angry B. displeased C. surprising D. laughing3.The teacher asked Joke ________.A.what he wanted to do after classB.what he did in classC.the same question as he asked TomD.to help Tom4.Joke’s answer meant that_______.A.he knew what to do and what not to do after lunchB.he did the same thing as Tom didC.he read a picture-bookD.he did many things after lunch5.From the above story we can see that ________. A. Joke did not know what question the teacher had askedB.Tom did well in his lessonsC.Joke was good at his lessonsD.Tom and Joke worked hard at their lessons (C) Mrs Black, the wife84 of a rich business85 man, invited some of her friends to have lunch. She wanted to try a new way of cooking86 a fish, and she was very pleased78 with herself87 when the dish88 was ready. As the dish was very hot, she put it near the open window to cool for a few minutes. But, five minutes later, when she came back for it, she was shocked89(震惊)to find the neighbour90’s cat at the dish. She was in time to stop the car. That afternoon was successful91 and everyone enjoyed the dish very much. They talked and laughed till92 four o’clock. At the end of the afternoon, when she was alone93 again, Mrs Black felt tired and happy. She was in a chair just near the window. She looked out of the window and shocked to see the neighbour’s cat dead94 in her garden. Why, the fish dish must be bad! What would happen to her friends? She at once telephoned the family doctor for advice95. The doctor told her to telephone each of the visitors97 to meet him at the hospital as soon as he could. Finally the danger98 was over. Once again Mrs Black was alone in her chair in the sitting-room99, still tired but no longer happy. Just then the telephone rang. It was her neighbour. “Oh, Mrs Black,” her neighbour cried, “My cat is dead. She was killed100 by someone101 in a car and put it in your garden.”1.Mrs Black invited _______to lunch.A. Mr Black’s friends B. her neighbourC. her parents D. some of her friends2.Why was Mrs Black not happy after she had a good party?A.She was sad about the dead cat.B.She found102 her fish dish was bad.C.She never thought that she would have so much trouble.D.She felt tired after she had a busy day.3.Mrs Black________________________.A.stopped the cat before it began to eat the fishB.was too late to stop the cat in timeC.stopped the cat before it ate3 the fish upD.stopped the cat but it was too late4.Why was Mrs Black so shocked to see the cat dead in her garden?A.She liked the cat very much.B.She worried103 about her friends.C.She was sure that her fish was bad.D.She didn’t know how the cat died104.5.Finally________________.A.Mrs Black found that all her friends were all rightB.a visitor96 told her that the cat was killed by someone in a carC.Mrs Black felt happy as all her friends were safeD.Mrs Black met all her friends at the hospital五. 根据汉语句子的意思完成下列英语句子1. 收音机里说今天晚些时候雨会停的。 The radio says the rain____ ____ ____ ____today.2. 我不喜欢冬天,因为天气太冷了。I don’t like winter, _____it’s ____ _____.3. 西安位于中国的西北部。Xi’an is ______the ______of China.4. 多好吃的面包啊!_____ _____ bread it is!5. 明天白天温度将保持在零度以上。 The temperature105 will _____ ____ _____ in the daytime106 tomorrow.六. 句型转换,使第二个句子和第一个句子的意思相近或相同1.What a hot day today! _____ _____ it is today! 2. Most of North and South China will have a cold wet day . ____ will be cold and wet _____ most of North and South China. 3. The radio says it will be cloudy sometimes. The radio says it will be cloudy ____ ____.4. The snow will be heavy in some places. It _____ _____ _____ in some places.5. Shall we go out for a walk? _____ _____ going out for a walk? 初二年级(中)【练习答案】一. 1.C 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.B 6.B 7.D 8.A 9.B 10.B 11.B 12.B 13.A 14.D 15.C 16.A 17.D 18.A 19.B 20.B二. 1. B 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. D 6. D 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. B三. (A) 1. B 2.A 3.A 4. A 5. B (B) 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. A (C) 1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.D 四. 1.to say sorry to you 2.he asked me to do 3.walking in the garden 4.a good memory107 5.invented108 the robot 6.it difficult to remember these words 7.eating meat 8.all the time 9.was born109 in 10. Good luck
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