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初三年级(下)【知识梳理】 I. 重点短语1. beg1 one's pardon2. multiply2 …by…3. slow down4. wear out 5. try on 6. make a decision, 7. a place of interest 8. make a mistake 9. drop off 10. think about11. make up one's mind,12. at all, 13. at least14. by the time 15. carry on 16. never mind 17. from now on18. come down 19. hands up 20. before long,21. no one,22. not…any longerII. 重要句型1. be busy doing sth.2. prefer to do sth.3. regard... as...4. be pleased with sth./sb.5. be angry with sb.III. 交际用语1. ---How much does… cost …?2. ---It can cost as little as … yuan and as much as … yuan.3. ---It costs ….4. ---It's worth ….5. ---I don't agree with ….6. ---I wasn't sure whether….7. ---I wonder if ….8. ---What size …? 9. ---Have you got any other colour / size / kind? 10. ---Have you got anything cheaper? 11. ---How much are they?12. ---How much does it cost? 13. ---How much is it? 14. ---That's a bit expensive. 15. ---Even though they're a little expensive, I'll take them. 16. ---I'll think about …. 17. ---I don't think I'll take ….18. ---I like ….19. ---I don't really like ….20. ---Can I help you, girl? 21. ---Would you like me to look in the back?22. ---We can find ….23. ---Do you like being3 …?24. ---Can I ask you some questions? 25. ---Sure. 26. ---It was great. 27. ---Wow! 28. ---Yeah!29. ---Oh dear!30. ---Hands up! 31. ---I’ll shoot anyone who moves. 32. ---There’s no need to thank me. 33. ---Can you remember anything else about him? 34. ---Come down, Polly!35. ---There is a little traffic accident.36. ---There's a big traffic jam.37. ---Well, I'm sure he'll be here before long.38. ---I'm beginning to get angry with him!39.---Yes, we can't wait any longer. Let's go without him.40. ---That's terrible! 41. ---That's a really bad excuse!IV. 重要语法1. 过去将来时 2. 过去完成时3. 动词不定式4. 定语从句【名师讲解】1. think/ think/about/ think of(1) think 单独使用时表示"思考", 接that 宾语从句时意为"认为","觉得"。 I am thinking5 how to work out the problem. I think she is a good student. 当宾语从句含有否定概念时,通常形式上否定think ,但意义上却是否定宾语从句。I don't think he can come.I don't think it will be windy.(2)think about 可接一个名词,动词-ing 形式或由疑问词引导的不定式或宾语从句,意思是"考虑……"。 I have thought about it for a long time. Please think about how to tell her the bad news. (3)think of 表示"认为", 一般用于疑问句中,与what 连用。 What do you think of the TV play? = How do you like the TV play?2. big/ large/ great上述形容词都表示"大",但侧重点及程度不同。 (1) big指具体事物的大小,强调比正常形体的标准大,既可用在普通场合, 也可用在正式场合。它可用来指人的身材高大或"长大了",还可表示"伟大","重要"之意。如: Can you lift up this big stone?On the last day I made a big decision.(2) large特别强调远远超过标准的大,指体积、面积、容积、数量之大。如:A whale is a large animal.A large crowd collected at the gate of the theatre.(3) great除了表示数量体积之大外,又指抽象的程度,意味着伟大性,重要性, 优越性;常用于抽象或无形的东西;用于有形的东西时,常带有"伟大","大得令人吃惊"等意思,含有一定的感情色彩。如:China is a great country with a long history. He was one of the greatest scientists. 3. cost/ take/ spend/ pay (1) cost表示"花钱",花费,付出(只能用于钱、精力、生命等;主语必须是物。) The book cost me five yuan. (2) take的主语是动词不定式, 通常用it做形式主语。It took me five yuan to buy the book.. (3) spend,在主动语句中主语是人I spent five yuan on (for) the book.或I spent five yuan (in) buying the book. (4) pay的主语是人。I paid five yuan for the book. 4. expensive/ high/ cheap/ low 这四个词在谈论到价格的高低时,要注意使用。expensive与high涉及到价格"高",而cheap 与low涉及到价格"低"。 (1) expensive昂贵的,花钱多的。这个单词若谈到"价格高,货贵"时,其主语不能是价格,必须是货物、物品本身。如: This watch is expensive. 这只表很贵。 These glass-products are not expensive. 这些玻璃制品不是很值钱。注意:cheap表示"价廉","便宜的",其主语也不能是价格,必须是物品本身。如:The cheap table was bought from him. 这张便宜的桌子是他卖给我们的。This cloth6 doll is very cheap. 这只布娃娃很便宜。(2)high在表示价格时,含义是"高",low在表示价格时,含义是"低",这两个词不能用于物品本身,只能用在价格上。如:The price of this watch is very high. 这只表的价格太高了。The price of this book is not low for me. 这本书的价格对我来说是不低。下面我们试看几个句子的正误对照:The price of this computer is expensive.(宜改为:This computer is expensive. 或The price of this computer is high. )The price of this pen is not cheap for him to buy.(宜改为:This pen is not cheap for him to buy. 或 The price of this pen is not low for him. )5. alone/ lonely lonely 与alone的意思比较接近,但在使用时有所区别:(1)lonely用作形容词,意思是"孤单的;寂寞的"。可指心灵上的寂寞,也可指偏僻的地点。在句中既可作表语,也可作定语。(2)alone 可作形容词和副词,意思是"单独;独自",不指心理上寂寞的感觉。She was taken to a lonely island, lived alone, but she never felt lonely.她被带到一个荒岛上,自己居住,但她从不感到寂寞。6. before long/ long before(1)before long 作“不久以后”讲,切不要按字面译为“长时间以前”或“好久以前”。如:We hope to finish our experiment before long. 我们希望不久(以后)就把实验做完。(2)long before 作"很久以前"讲。原意为"……以前很久",故也可译为"老早"。long before 跟before long 不同,前者在其后面可以接名词或一个从句;当上下文明确时,名词或从句还可以省略。Before long 则没有上述搭配用法。 They began the test yesterday, but we had made experiment long before. 我们昨天开始做实验,但我们在那以前很久就已经做准备了。7. as/ when/ while(1)as 是连词,意思是"当……的时候,一面……一面",(强调同时,一般连续时间不长),如:As we were talking about Titanic7, our teacher came in. 正当我们谈论"泰坦尼克号"这部电影时,教师进来了。The students sing as they go along. 学生们边走边唱。(2)When和as一样都是连词,注意它们的不同。如when"当……的时候"(一般表示动作紧接着发生);"那时"(等立连词,前有逗号分开)I stayed till sunset8, when it began to rain. 我一直呆到太阳下山,那时天开始下雨了。(3)while是"当……时候;和……同时"(强调同时发生,一般连续时间较长)While I was watching TV, he was reading9. 当我在看电视的时候,他正在看书。While there is life, there is hope. 有生命就有希望。 8. beat/win/ hit (1)beat 是动词,意思是"连续地打; 打败; 敲打"。beat后可接人或队名。意思是"击败对手。"如:I can beat you at swimming. (2)win意思是"赢得某个项目",后面常接"match, game"。如:He won a game. 他胜一局。We won a match. 我们比赛得胜。(3)hit意思是"击中"(有时可表示"打一下")。如:The mother hit her child out of anger10. 妈妈生气,打了她孩子一下。9. keep doing/keep on doing(1)keep doing侧重表示"持续不停地做某事"或"持续某种状态"。如: The girl kept crying all the time. 那个女孩一直在哭。 The baby kept sleeping about four hours. 这个婴儿连续睡了大约四个小时。(2)keep on doing 表示"总不断做某事",不表示静止状态。不能与sitting, sleeping, lying, standing这类词连用。如:It kept on raining for seven days. Don't keep on asking such silly questions. 10. get/ turn/ become这三个词都可作系动词用,表示状态的变化,后跟表语,但三个词的用法稍有不同。get强调情感、气候和环境的变化;turn强调色彩的变化;而become则强调职务、职称等的变化。如: The days are getting shorter and shorter in winter.冬天的白天越来越短。She couldn't answer the question and her face turned red.她回答不出问题,脸红了。When did you become a teacher? - Ten years ago.你什么时候当的老师?十年前。11. steal / rob从意思上讲steal表示偷窃的意思。而rob表示抢劫的意思;从搭配上来讲,steal sth from sb/sth ;而rob则用rob sb/sth of sth; 例如:He stole money from the rich to give it to the poor.They robbed12 the bank of one million dollars.12. see/look/watch/notice在英语中,see,look,watch,notice都有“看”的意思,要注意他们的区别。see意为“看到”,表示视觉器官有意识或无意识地看到物体,强调“看到”的结果。look意为“看”,表示有意识地观看,强调“看”的动作。watch意为“观看,注视”,指以较大的注意力观看。notice意为“看到,注意到”,指有意识的注意,含有从不注意到注意的变化的意义。例如:What can you see in the picture?在图画中你能看到什么?Look! How happily they are playing!看!他们玩得多高兴啊!He’s watched TV for over two hours.他看了两个多小时的电视。He noticed a purse lying on the road.他注意到地上有个钱包。13. Shoot/ shoot atshoot是及物动词,意思是“射中,射死”,宾语多为人或动物等。而shoot at是一个动词词组,意为“向……射击”,至于射中或射死与否不得而知。如:The man shot13 five birds in the forest.那个人在森林里射死(中)了五只鸟。The hunter14 shot at the bear.猎人朝熊射击了。They shot at the she-wolf, but didn't shoot her.他们向那只母狼射击,但是没有射中/死。14. escape/ run away(1)escape作“逃跑”、“逃脱”或“逃避”讲时,往往会有成功之意。如:The old man escaped15 death.那个老人死里逃生。The thief escaped from prison16.那个小偷越狱了。 (2)run away作“逃跑”、“跑走”讲时,往往强调动作。如:Don't let him run away. 别让他跑了。口语中escape和run away可以互用。15. so that..../ so... that....(1) so that....为了,以便 。引导一个目的状语从句,从句中往往有情态动词。也可引导一个结果状语从句。如:I left at 5:00 so that I could catch the early bus.Speak loudly, so that they can hear what you say. He didn't study English so that he lost a chance to work in a foreign company.(2) so... that....既可引导一个结果状语从句,也可引导一个目的状语从句。如:The classroom was so noisy that I could hardly study.I got up so early in the morning that I could catch the train.【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:1. 过去将来时; 2. 过去完成时;3. 动词不定式;4. 定语从句;5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;6. 本单元学过的交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。【中考范例】1. (2004年济宁市中考试题) He wanted to know ______________. A. whether he speaks at the meeting B. when the meeting would startB. what he’s going to do at the meeting D. where would the meeting be held【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是宾语从句的语序和时态。因为主句的时态是一般过去时,所以从句应用过去将来时,这就排除了A和B。宾语从句的时态应该是陈述句的语序,所以只有B是对的。2. (2004年烟台市中考试题) ---Why didn’t you go to the movie yesterday? ---Because I ___________ it before.A. had watched B. have seen C. have watched D. had seen【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词的搭配以及现在完成时和过去完成时的用法区别。看电影习惯商用see a movie, 又因为说的昨天以前发生的事情,应该用过去完成时。只有D正确。3. (2004年重庆市中考试题) ---Did you win the football game? ---Bad luck. Our team __________ in the final one.A. won B. beat C. was won D. was beaten【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词搭配和动词的语态。动词win通常和比赛一类的词连用,不与人或队连用,因此可以排除A和C。beat是个及物动词,既然我们的运气不好,就是输了,应该用被动语态。4. (2004年广州市中考试题) ---Who is the man ________ was talking to our English teacher? ---Oh! It’s Mr Baker17, our maths teacher.A. he B. that C. whom D. which【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是引导定语从句关系代词的选择。由于先行词是人,可以排除A和D。而该词在定语从句中作主语,只有B合适。 【满分演练】一. 单项选择1. Though he is ____________ seventy years old, he takes exercise every day. A.past B.above C.on D.over 2. The sun rises ___________ and goes down ____________. A.in the east, in the west B.in the west, in the east C.to the east, to the west D.from the east, from the west 3. Which would you like, Madam, tea or coffee? ____________, thanks. I’d like a glass of water, please. A.Either B.Both C.Neither D.OK 4. One of the boys is ________, all the other boys are _________. A.English , China B.an English, Chinese C.England , China D.English, Chinese 5. ---How soon will you finish the building? --- __________________________. A.In two months B.Two months C.About two months D.After two months 6. They did ______________ their father told them. A.like B.as C.about D.with 7. The fish smells ______________. You mustn’t eat it. A.nicely B.heavily C.terrible D.terribly 8. Either you or he _______________ the team. A.is in B.are on C.is on D.are in 9. He was made _____________ thirteen hours a day by his boss18. A.to work B.work C.is on D.are in 10. ___________ you work, ___________ you will do. A.Harder, better B.The harder, the worse C.Hardest, best D.The harder, the better 11. Mrs Hu asked Liu Fang19 and __________ to take part in the English meeting. A.I B.my C.me D.mine 12. Tell the students _____________ their English books. A.to take B.to carry C.to bring D.bring 13. It _____________ us two hours’ walk to get to our school. A.take B.takes C.spend D.paid 14. My little sister is so tired, she can hardly walk, ____________? A.does she B.can she C.doesn’t she D.can’t she 15. __________ Yellow River is the second longest river is our country. A./ B.The C.An D.A 16. ---Do you want to _____ at the meeting. ---No, I have nothing to ______________. A.say, speak B.tell, talk C.say, say D.speak, say 17.---You need something to drink, don’t you? --- ________________________________. A.Not at all B.I needn’t C.No, please D.Yes, please 18. She asked me _____ he could dance or sing. A.if B.what C.whether D.that 19. ---Aren’t you Mary’s sister? ---_____________________ I’m her aunt. A.Yes, I am B.No, I’m not C.Yes, I’m not D.No, I am 20. _____________, no man has travelled farther20 than the moon. A.To now B.To far C.So far D.Till now 二. 用所给动词的适当形式填空1. Class 3 won the football match and our class _____ by them. (beat) 2. By last Friday the students _____ (learn)all their new lessons. 3. He will be a worker after he _____ (finish) middle school. 4. I felt like ______ (have) a rest after lunch. 5. Is there another way of ______ (answer) the question? 6. I’ll tell him the news that our class ______ (win). 7. Jim made us ______ (agree) with him. 8. The teacher _____ (give) us a lesson when Tom walked into the room. 9. Someone saw him ______ (fall) off the horse just now. 10. Look! A group of policemen ______ (run) into that room. 三. 改写句子 1. None of the doctors knows about the matter. _____ _____ know about the matter. 2. Tom is taller than John. Jonh is not _____ _______ _____ Tom. 3. The jacket cost so little that he bought it. The jacket _____ ______ _____ for him to buy. 4. Jim had a good journey21 home. Jim ______ _____ very much ____ ____ _______ home. 5. I didn’t finish my work in time because my pen was broken22. The ____ pen stopped ______ _____ finishing my work in time. 四. 完形填空Hundreds of years ago, life was 1 than 2 today. People didn’t have modern machines. There 3 modern medicine, 4 . Life today 5 new problems. One of the biggest is pollution (污染). Water pollution has 6 our rivers and lakes dirty. It kills our fish and affects23 (影响) our drinking water. Noise pollution makes us 7 louder and 8 . Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution. It affects 9 living thing in the world. Cars, planes and factories all pollute24 (污染) our air every day. Sometimes the pollution is so 10 that it is like a quilt25 (被状物)over a city. This kind of quilt is called smog26. (烟雾) 1. A.more hard B.more harder C.much harder D.much more harder 2. A.they are B.they were C.it was D.it is 3. A.were not B.was no C.were D.was 4. A.either B.too C.also D.neither 5. A.bring B.have C.have got D.has brought 6. A.made B.let C.taken D.changed 7. A.say B.talk C.tell D.spoke27 8. A.feel happy more happily B.get angry much more easier C.get angry much easier D.feel and more slowly 9. A.most B.all C.one D.every 10. A.thin B.thick C.hard D.light 五. 阅读理解(A) Since the beginning of time, man has invented many interesting things. Some of these inventions, like numbers and the radio have certainly changed history. Since 1946, one of the most important inventions has been the computer. It will change all our lives. The first computer was built at Harvard University(哈佛大学) in 1944. it was as large as a room and quite difficult and slow to operate(运行). But since the invention of the silicon28 chip29(硅片), computer have become smaller, easier to use, and faster to operate. Some computers are as small as television sets. Some computers can be made smaller than a book. And computers are getting smaller all the time. There are several reasons(原因) why computer is useful to us. First it can store(储藏) very, very large amount(数量) of information(信息). Second, the computer can operate very quickly. Third, modern computer can be built into other kinds of machines, like radios, cars, and planes. They can do a lot of work for us. Soon, almost everyone, either at home or at work, will use some kind of computer. The lives of all of us will be changed by this invention.判断下列句子是否符合短文内容。符合的用“A”表示;不符合的用“B”表示.1. According30 to(根据)this passage, many inventions have changed history and people’s life.2. The first computer was built in the middle of the 19th century(世纪).3. A modern computer can be made smaller than silicon chip.4. The computer has been made much better since the invention of the silicon chip.5. The computer is useful because it can store lots of information, it can operate very quickly and can be built into other machines. (B)Joe Biggs was a butcher31 (屠夫). His shop was in a village in one of the most beautiful parts of southern England . He worked in it for many years while his father was there. Then, when his father reached the age of 65, he stopped working in the shop. Joe was alone in it, so he had to work harder. Joe worked five and a half day a week. His shop shut at one o’clock on Thursday, and it was shut the whole of Sunday. Saturdays were the busiest days. Joe had a big refrigerator (冰箱)in his shop, but he tried not to buy too much meat at a time. One Thursday a woman came into the shop at five minutes to one. “I’m sorry I’m very late,” she said, “but some people have just telephoned to say that they are going to come to dinner tonight, and I need some more meat.” Joe only had one piece of good meat in the shop. He had sold all the rest earlier in the day. He took the piece out and said to the woman. “This is £7.15.” “That piece is too small,” the woman answered. “Haven’t you got anything bigger?” Joe went into the room behind his shop, opened the refrigerator, put the piece of meat into it, took it out again and shut the door of the refrigerator with a lot of noise. Then he brought the piece of meat back to the woman and said, “This piece is bigger and more expensive. It’s £9.30.” “Good,” the woman answered with a smile. “give me both of them, please.” 6. Joe worked alone in the shop ________. A.on Saturdays B.on Thursdays C.afer his father died D.after his father stopped working 7. Joe sold meat in his shop _______. A.on Thursday afternoons B.on Sundays C.on Fridays D.every day 8. One day a woman came to his shop ________. A.at 1:55, Tuesday B.at 1:05 C.to say sorry to him D.because someone had suddenly telephoned her 9. Which of the following is true? A.People bought all the meat from him. B.The woman didn’t want the expensive piece of meat. C.Joe brought the woman a different piece. D.The woman wanted to buy the two pieces of meat together. 10.Joe only had one piece of good meat because ______. A.Joe’s refrigerator had broken. B.he tried not to buy too much meat at a time. C.he knew that the meat would go bad (变质). D.he had no money to buy more. (C) If you go into the forest with friends, stay with them always. If you don’t, you may get lost. If you really get lost, this is what you should do. Sit down and stay where you are. Don’t try to find your friends.Let them find you by staying in one place. There is another way to help your friends or other nearby people to find you. Give them a signal32 by shouting or whistling33 (打口哨) three times. Stop. Then shout or whistle34 three times. Any signal given three times is a call for help. Keep up the shouting or whistling always three times together. When people hear you, they will know that you are not just making noise for fun. They will let you know that they have heard your signal. They will give two shouts, two whistles35 or two gun shots36 (枪声). When someone gives a signal, it is an answer to a call for help. If you don’t think that you will get help before night comes, try to make a little house — cover up the holes with branches38(树枝) with lots of leaves. Make yourself a soft bed with leaves and grass. What should you do if you get hungry or need drinking water? You would have to leave your little branch37 house to look for a river. Don’t just walk away. Pick off small branches and drop them as you walk so that you can find your way back. The most important thing to do when you are lost is — stay in one place. 11. If you got lost in the forest,you should _______. A.stay where you are and give a signal three times B.walk around the forest and shouted so that your friends might hear you C.try to find your friends as soon as possible D.try to get out of the forest and shouted for help 12. If you want to let people believe that you are not just making noise for fun you should ________. A.shout that you are lost B.keep up the shouting or whistling C.shout at the top of your voice D.shout or whistle once in a while 13. When you hear _______ shouts or whistles or gun shots,you know that _______. A.two; people will soon come to help you B.three; some one is asking for help C.three; people will soon come to help you D.two; someone is asking for help 14. When you are lost in the forest, but you want to leave your place to get water, you should ________. A.just go to the river B.find a bowl or a glass, and then go C.make a fire so that you might make yourself some hot tea D.leave marks (标志)as you go to the river so that you can find your way back 15. This story mainly39 (主要地)tells you _______. A.that when someone gives a signal always three times, it is a call for help B.What you should do if you get lost in the forest C.that when any signal given twice means40 an answer to a call for help D. What you should do if you get lost in the street六. 书面表达 根据提示写一篇有关你今天活动的日记 要求:1、字数在60—80个单词左右。 2、日期、天气状况等放在日记行文格式上。 3、今天是2005年3月3日,星期六早晨6点45分起床,匆忙去上学, 学校停课。然后和几个同学去公园野餐,乘车回家。9点睡觉。 初三年级(下)【练习答案】一. 1.D 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.A 6.B 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.D 11.C 12.C 13.B 14.B 15.B 16.D 17.D 18.C 19.B 20.C 二.1. was beaten 2. had learnt/learned 3. finishes 4. having 5. answering 6. has/have won 7. agree 8. was giving 9. fall 10. are running 三. 1.No doctors 2. so/as tall as 3. was cheap enough 4. enjoyed himself; when he travelled 5.broken; me from 四. 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.D 6.A 7.B 8.C 9.D 10.B 五. 1.A 2.B 3.B 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.C 8.D 9.D 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.A 14.D 15.B 六. Saturday Mar3,2005 Sunny Today is Saturday. I got up at 6:45 this morning. I had a quick breakfast and then went to school in a hurry, but we don’t have classes on Saturday. Then I telephoned some classmates and asked them to have a picnic. They were very pleased. We got to the park and enjoyed ourselves. At about 5:00 in the afternoon, we went home by bus. I was too tired, so I’ll go to bed at 9:00.
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